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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 95-100

Ramifications of pancytopenia in children in a tertiary care center in North Indian

Department of Pediatrics, SMGSH, GMC, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Preeti Sharma
Department of Pediatrics, SMGSH, GMC, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joah.joah_97_22

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BACKGROUND: Pancytopenia generally suggests the likelihood of bone marrow failure syndromes or leukemias. However, other easily treatable entities can also cause pancytopenia. To know the underlying cause of pancytopenia is essential for definite management and prognosis. AIM: The aim of this study is to study the prevalence, clinico-hematological profile, and etiology of pancytopenia in hospitalized children of 1 month to 18 years of age. METHODS: Descriptive study conducted in a tertiary care center included children of age 1 month to 18 years hospitalized with pancytopenia. Sociodemographic data, presenting complaints, and detailed history were noted. Detailed clinical examination and relevant investigations were done. RESULTS: The prevalence of pancytopenia was 2%. Majority of the patients were >10 years of age. Female: Male ratio was 1.15:1. The most common presentation was progressive pallor, followed by fever, icterus, and bleeding manifestations. The most common clinical examination finding was pallor, followed by splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, icterus, and lymphadenopathy. Macrocytic blood picture was most common, followed by microcytic, atypical cells, and normocytic picture. Mean serum ferritin (ng/ml) was 374.77 ± 1662.64. Mean serum B12 (pg/ml) was 117.72 ± 64.71. In bone marrow aspirate examination, megaloblastic erythropoiesis was most common, followed by normoblastic erythropoiesis, dual deficiency, malignant cells of lymphoid series, hypocellular marrow, and malignant cells of myeloid series. Megaloblastic anemia was the most common etiology, followed by dimorphic anemia amid acute leukemia. CONCLUSION: The study showed that megaloblastic anemia and infections (tuberculosis, dengue fever, and enteric fever) both of which are eminently treatable, cause nearly 65% of pancytopenia cases in pediatric patients.

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