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Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 22-28

Clinical features and outcome of sickle cell anemia in a tertiary center: A retrospective cohort study

1 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, College of Medicine, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Hematology, King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, National Guard Health Affairs, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Mohsen Saadi Alzahrani
King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Department of Hematology, National Guard Health Affairs, P.O. Box 22490, Riyadh 11426
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/joah.joah_48_17

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Introduction: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is one of the most common genetic diseases worldwide. Patients with SCA present with varied clinical features and complications that may affect many organs in the human body. There are few treatment options for SCA, and patient responses vary; the only curative therapy is a stem cell transplant or gene therapy. We seek to study the clinical features and treatment options for patients with sickle cell disease treated in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh. Methods: This study was a retrospective cohort study of all adult SCA patients who were admitted to our institution during the period from 1983 to 2016. Data were entered into Excel spreadsheets and managed with SPSS. Chi-square test was used to compare responses to therapy and in patients with different presentations. Results: A total of 106 patients with sickle cell disease were included in this study. The percentages with respect to hospital admissions per year were as follows: 34.9% (37 patients) were never admitted, 26.4% (28 patients) were admitted fewer than 2 times, 24.5% (26 patients) were admitted 3–5 times, and 13.2% (14 patients) were admitted more than 5 times. The number of complications was used to measure the severity of the disease. The disease severity was higher in males than in females (67.3% vs. 32.7%, respectively; P = 0.018). The disease severity was higher in those who were born in the Western and Southwestern areas than in other areas (84.2% vs. 15.8%, respectively; P = 0.007). Hydroxyurea significantly reduced the severity of SCA with a P = 0.002. Conclusion: Our study showed that vaso-occlusive crisis was the most common complication and indication for hospital admission. Treatment with hydroxyurea led to a significant reduction in the number of hospital admissions.

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