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Year : 2015  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 58-63

Multiple myeloma: The burden and clinico-laboratory characteristics in a Nigerian foremost tertiary hospital

Department of Haematology, College of Medicine, University College Hospital, PMB 5116, Ibadan, Nigeria

Correspondence Address:
John Ayodele Olaniyi
Department of Haematology, College of Medicine, University College Hospital, PMB 5116, Ibadan
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/1658-5127.160200

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Objectives: To determine the burden, the clinical and laboratory pattern of presentation of multiple myeloma (MM) in Ibadan, South-Western Nigeria. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of cases of MM from December 2007 to November 2012. Results: Records of 21 cases of MM were retrievable. The median age was 60 years, with age range of 40-95 years. The M:F ratio was 1.1:1. IgG MM was the most common, found in 14 (70%). Most cases were referred from other clinical departments of the University College of Hospital with Orthopaedics department referring the highest number (33.3%). The most common complaint included low back and waist pain in 20 (96%) of which 9 (44%) had difficulty in walking but 4 (19%) actually had demonstrable paraparesis. Two cases (9.6%) presented in unconscious state while a case (4.3%) respectively presented with malignant pleural effusion, sacral plasmacytoma and cauda-equina syndrome. The mean hematocrit, white cell count and platelet count were 26.5%, 6, 216/mm 3 and 264, 778/mm 3 respectively. Biochemical abnormalities included hyperuricemia (>6 mg/dl) in 4/15 (26.6%). Uremia (urea 50-200 mg/dl) was found in 4/21 (19%), hypocalcemia (Ca ++ <9 mg/dl) in 6 (35.3%). Paraproteinurial in 9 (42.9%). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (>100 mm/H) values were recorded in 19 (90.5%). Main Radiological features were osteolytic lesions and osteoporosis in 18 (85.7%). Serum protein electrophoretic pattern showed abnormally thick gamma band in 47.1%, thick beta band in 19.1%, marked polyclonal gammopathy in 1 (4.8%) and 4 (18.4%) had nonsecretory MM. Bone marrow studies showed presence of abnormal plasmacytosis in all ranging from 20% to 80% infiltration. Therapy was mainly by combination of melphalan, prednisolone and thalidomide (M + P + T). Those who had thalidomide appear to have better survival. Conclusion: MM is a heterogeneous disease with diverse clinical and laboratory features. An average of 4 cases presented per year; bony presentations predominate, IgG MM was the commonest and hypercalcemia was not documented.

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