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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2015  |  Volume : 6  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 6-12

Clinical features and outcome of acute myeloid leukemia, a single institution experience in Saudi Arabia


1 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Pathology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia
3 Division of Adult Hematology, King Abdulaziz Medical City, Ministry of National Guard, Riyadh; King Abdullah International Medical Research Center, Riyadh; King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Mohsen Al Zahrani
King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/1658-5127.155171

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Aim: Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a type of malignancy that is associated with a malignant alteration of normal hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow. The aim of this study was to study the demographics and pathological subtypes of AML, evaluate the response and outcome to different treatment modalities. Methods: This was a retrospective study of adult patients diagnosed with AML at King Abdulaziz Medical City - Riyadh, between 2006 and 2013. Data were retrieved from patients' files, electronic medical files and laboratory information system. Results: 91 patients were included in the study with a male dominance. M1 was the most common French-American-British subtype with 23 (32%) cases. Patients with intermediate-risk AML were the most common subgroup with 41 (48%) cases followed by high and low-risk subgroups, 29 (33%) and 16 (19%), respectively. 74 patients were treated with intensive chemotherapy, and 17 were on palliative chemotherapy or best supportive treatment. Remission rate was found to be 84% in patients who received induction chemotherapy while 41% of them relapsed. 93% of low-risk patients underwent complete remission (CR) compared to intermediate and high-risk patients (79% and 87% respectively), but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.4). The median follow-up was 19 months, with overall survival (OS) of 46% for all groups. The low-risk patients had the highest OS 57% compared to intermediate and high risk (52% and 36%, respectively), but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.3). 18 patients had been treated with allogeneic stem cell transplant and at a median follow-up of 17 months posttransplant the OS was 72%. Conclusion: This study shows M1 subtype to be the most common of AML in this population. In addition, the CR was better with similar survival rate as compared to other local and internationally published experiences. These results, albeit with its limitations, need to be confirmed in a prospective clinical trial or national disease registry.


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